A review of biophysical and socio-economic effects of unconventional oil and gas extraction – Implications for South Africa Journal title: Journal of Environmental Management Final version published online: 25-OCT-2016 Full bibliographic details: Journal of Environmental Management (2016), pp. 419-430, Surina Esterhuysea, , , Marinda Avenanta, Nola Redelinghuysb, Andrzej Kijkoc, Jan Glazewskid, Lisa Plitd, Marthie Kempa, Ansie Smitc, A. Tascha Vosa, Richard Williamsona
a Centre for Environmental Management, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, South Africa
The impacts associated with unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction will be cumulative in nature and will most likely occur on a regional scale, highlighting the importance of using strategic decision-making and management tools. Managing possible impacts responsibly is extremely important in a water scarce country such as South Africa, versus countries where more water may be available for UOG extraction activities. This review article explains the possible biophysical and socio-economic impacts associated with UOG extraction within the South African context and how these complex impacts interlink. Relevant policy and governance frameworks to manage these impacts are also highlighted.