The Built Environment

No e-book appears to be available, but it should be available on interlibrary loan, from the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.

Prof Doreen Atkinson may be able to access this item for you electronically; contact her at

There appears to be no e-version available, but it should be available on interlibrary loan, from the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.

Prof Doreen Atkinson may be able to access this item for you electronically; contact her at

 Two concepts, (1) companies are ‘living’ entities and (2) ‘company ecology’, stimulated our hypothesis that towns are ‘enterprise ecosystems’. This hypothesis cannot be tested directly. However, if it is correct, application of clustering and ordination techniques used frequently in studies of natural ecosystems, should reveal clusters of towns that are statistically significantly different (p < 0.05). A dataset of 47 towns in the Karoo, South Africa served as study material and their enterprise assemblages were profiled through the use of a simple method based on the examination of telephone directories. Clustering and ordination techniques revealed six different clusters of towns at a correlation coefficient level of 0.65 and the clusters differed significantly (p < 0.05) in some respects. The agricultural products and services, the tourism and hospitality, and the trade sectors were particularly important in defining these clusters. We concluded that enterprise ecology is a valid concept and towns are ‘ecosystems’ that also cluster together in larger groupings. An array of potentially important techniques and approaches for the study of business development in towns now provide support to, and intriguing questions confront, academic and practical researchers of enterprise development in towns.

IN this study the Eastern Cape Midlands are defined as that “,rea including most of the upper and middle sections in the drainage basins of the Sundays and Great Fish rivers, the southern boundary being taken as the Klein Winterberg and Suurberg ranges. This region consists of the magisterial districts of Murraysburg, Aberdeen, Graaff-Reinet, Jansenville, Middelburg, Somerset East, Pearston, Bedford, Cradock, Maraisburg and Molteno (figure 1). The area is of considerable
interest in a study of urb”,n origin in South Africa since it incorporates some of the oldest inland towns in the country, Graaff-Reinet, for example, dating as far back as 1786, and it reveals some factors that were important in pioneer township formation, Furthermore, although there are som~ complicating relief features, it is a fairly homogeneous area in terms of climate, vegetation and natural resources, and therefore one in which central-place relationships can be studied with a minimum of disrupting influences.

This study aims to understand the role that 19th century photography can play in the
reconstruction of an era and in the conservation of cultural heritage in the 21st century. The
photo collection of William Roe, a photographer from Graaff-Reinet, is used as an example.
The origin and development of Graaff-Reinet is used as background information and major
events such as the Great Trek, the arrival of the railway, the Anglo-Boer War, the First World
War and the Great Flu are touched upon. Aspects such as education, churches, the library
and the hospital in Graaff-Reinet complement the study.
An overview of the development of photography covers several early photo-making
processes. These include the daguerreotype process, Talbot’s paper negative process,
collotype and the popular carte de visite photographs. Photography specifically in South
Africa is also conferred, with particular reference to the first photographers working in the
country. Reference is made to the important influences major events like the discovery of
diamonds and gold as well as the Anglo-Boer War had on photography.

The study of local history in South Africa is still in its infancy and has not been accorded the same recognition as elsewhere. There is no convenient manual to guide the would-be local historian of the Cape. There are few models that provide an insight into the main problems encountered by the local historian of a Cape community. In such local histories as exist, attention has been focussed predominantly on the foundation and physical growth of towns, the naming of streets, the establishment of schools and hospitals. Many of these accounts were written for publicity purposes or to commemorate the founding of towns. Although there is no history of the Dutch Reformed Church in Graaff-Reinet, the history of local congregations of the Dutch Reformed Church has generally been well covered in the form of Gedenkboeke and other studies. These frequently have a particular relevance as many towns such as Burgersdorp and Colesberg were founded as a result of the initiative of the church. Preface.

Although Alfred Marshall’s definition of economics has been criticised for its allegedly narrow conception of the subject, it is sometimes overlooked that he considered the study of wealth but one side of the matter. To Marshall, the other and “more important” side of economics was that it also forms “a part of the study of man”. The basic thought which underlies the present study is a similar one, namely, that economics is not only concerned with goods and service, but also with men and human action. It is spatially confined to an analysis of the human resources in a region consisting of 21 magisterial districts in the Eastern Cape Province, which cover an area of 72, 462 square kilometres, collectively described here as the Cape Midlands.

The area covered in this survey of the Cape Midlands is roughly that portion of the Eastern Cape Province which looks to Port Elizabeth as its principal industrial and market centre where the density of the population is the closest. It lies generally within the geographical region described by Professor J.V.L. Rennie as the Eastern Province Midlands Area. “The Midlands area appears to include all that part of the Eastern Province lying west of the Great Fish and Tark rivers and at least as far inland as the Great Escarpment. The term (Cape Midlands) is commonly applied to local organisations in the larger inland centres of Graaff-Reinet and Port Elizabeth interests. Intro. p.1-2

Hierdie studie het ten doel om die rol wat 19de-eeuse fotografie kan vervul in die rekonstruksie van ’n era en in die bewaring van kultuurgoedere vir die 21ste eeu, aan te spreek. Die fotoversameling van William Roe van Graaff-Reinet word as voorbeeld gebruik.

Shale gas development (SGD) is expected to have the following impacts:

• Highly likely to be an incremental increase in the construction, upgrading and maintenance of road infrastructure with an associated increase in demand for scarce construction materials (including high quality gravel and water) and increased on-going road maintenance.

• Highly likely to be increased volumes of heavy vehicles on district and local roads, and a subsequent impact on major through routes (logistical corridors) in the wider region leading to 1) the deterioration of roads, and 2) necessitating higher levels of law enforcement and traffic management, to prevent vehicle overloading, traffic accidents and congestion.

• A high likelihood of formal and informal town growth and subsequent demand on housing, services and infrastructure in main towns, with resultant pressures on municipal capacity, financial viability resources and management, to ensure effective delivery.


Accompanied by an Appendix (click here).

This document, as well as the full CSIR report can be accessed at